Cristobal Balenciaga – The Purist


Cristobal Balenciaga (1895-1972)  Spanish

Dovima by Richard Avedon

The style of Cristobal Balenciaga was a mixture of simplicity, minimalism, and drama in powerful colors and dynamic shapes. He used fabrics that could form and support his structured clothing such as taffeta, silk gazar, faille, upholstery weight wools, and mohair. However, his clothes differed from his contemporary Christian Dior, in that he created a looser line than Dior did, with his barrel back jackets, kimono-shaped, bracelet-length sleeves, and ballooning shapes. His designs were pared down and rather than molding a predetermined shape for the figure, they instead skimmed the body.

Silk gazar evening cape, 1963.

Balenciaga was inspired by non-western clothing and religious-influenced or ecclesiastical garments. His clothes were known for their elegant starkness and austerity. This was most likely a result of his goal to reduce the decoration of garments to only the most essential.

Wedding dress, 1967.

Balenciaga was temperamental, secretive, and very private. Because of this, pictures of his work are very hard to come by. In fact, he would rarely let photographs of his collections be taken, expect for the few exclusive editorials in Vogue magazine by photographer Irving Penn. An example of his difficulty with the press: he chose to show his collections a month later than the other Paris houses, which caused a conflict for the foreign press who then needed to return because of his importance and reputation in dressmaking.

Gown, 1965.

Luckily, you may have a chance to see Balenciaga’s work in person this year as the Met is hosting a retrospective of his work with the Queen Sofía Spanish Institute. The exhibition, Balenciaga: Spanish Master, conceived by Oscar de la Renta and curated by Hamish Bowles, has been open since November 19, 2010 and will run until February 19, 2011. For more information, see here and here.

Evening dress, stole, 1952.

His style, innovations, and influence on fashion:

  • He is credited with showing the first “pillbox” hat in 1958, which became a fad when Oleg Cassini chose the style as part of Jackie Kennedy’s European-influenced wardrobe.
  • Favorite colors were cinnamon, black, brown, white, turquoise, and deep rich red for evening.
  • His signature fabric, a crisp silk gazar, was also a favorite of Hubert de Givenchy.
  • Instead of padding, he used stiffened fabric to create the permanent shapes for his balloon-like silhouettes.

The sack dress on I Love Lucy

  • Introduced the non-existent waistline with his 1957 “sack” dress, a style notably satirized on an episode of I Love Lucy.
  • The balloon jacket, balloon skirt and the baby doll silhouettes were all his creations.

Sources: Dressmakers of France, (1956) Mary Brooks Pickens, Dora Loues Miller; Secrets of the Couturiers, (1984) Frances Kennett; Fashion (2003) Christopher Breward; 100 Dresses, (2010) Costume Institute at The Metropolitan Museum of Art; The World’s Most Influential Fashion Designers (2010) Noel Palomo-Lovinski.

Lisa Williams   —  

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Comments 6


I absolutely loved that episode of I Love Lucy. It is funny how fashion often loses it’s beauty in an attempt to be avant-garde.


I am thrilled to go see this next weekend! The catalogue will be out in March, a bit of a miss on timing, but still.
Lucy and Ethel and Cristobal=fun : )


so excited to see that this exhibit will be moving to the west coast and open at the De Young on March 26th! I wonder if its going to be the same catalog or reflect a more expanded show.

Circular Fashion | Monica D. Murgia

[…] Circular Fashion During the past few weeks, I’ve been working on another writing project.  I have to write a series of entries on American fashion in the 1940s.  Needless to say, I’ve been having a blast.  One thing I love about collaborating with others is that it exposes me to new things – new ways of thinking, different images, and endless possibilities.  This week marks my first deadline for the project.  And while I should just focus on completing my last article, I just couldn’t help but write this short post! As I dug through primary sources (magazines and images of garments from the time period), I came across this evening dress by Cristobal Balenciaga.  The train of the dress, when held out, has a circular shape. Evening dress by Cristobal Balenciaga, c. 1967.  Image courtesy of Balenciaga (1895-1972) was a famed Spanish designer during his heyday, and he caught my attention in graduate school.  I was mainly interested in him because of I was interested in exploring patriotism through fashion (an idea that merits another post).  Yet his precision and mathematical construction of clothing won me over far more than ideas of heritage through dress. My first though when seeing the black dress above was “Pierre Cardin”.  Now, hear me out . . . Balenciaga was influenced by religious garments.  While part of this fascination was due to Spain being a Catholic country, Balenciaga was also focused on reducing garments to their purest, most essential state.  This means reducing surface embellishments.  With this goal, construction becomes extremely important.  Many of Balenciaga’s designs are geometric, but still have a fluidity of movement.  This makes the wearer look like a moving sculpture – one that changes shape with every gesture.  Look at his famed wedding dress from 1967 for example: Wedding dress by Cristobal Balenciaga, 1967.  Image courtesy of Coletterie. […]

coloring page #6 | holzfeder

[…] It is not because he was Basque like me or because my grand mother used to saw for him in his first atelier in San Sebastián, I love Balenciagas work for its structured and reduced sofistication, for its sobriety and because his pieces are so infinitely elegant. […]

blog » coloring page #6

[…] It is not because he was Basque like me or because my grand mother used to saw for him in his first atelier in San Sebastián, I love Balenciagas work for its structured and reduced sophistication, for its sobriety and because his pieces are so infinitely elegant. […]

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